Ps 148:1-14. The scope of this Psalm is the same as that of the preceding.
1. heavens [and] heights--are synonymous.
4. heavens of heavens--the very highest.
waters--clouds, resting above the visible heavens (compare Ge 1:7).
5. praise the name--as representing His perfections.
he commanded--"He" is emphatic, ascribing creation to God alone.
7-10. The call on the earth, as opposed to heaven, includes seas or depths, whose inhabitants the dragon, as one of the largest (on leviathan, see on Ps 104:26), is selected to represent. The most destructive and ungovernable agents of inanimate nature are introduced.
8. fulfilling his word--or, law, may be understood of each. Next the most distinguished productions of the vegetable world.
9. fruitful trees--or, "trees of fruit," as opposed to forest trees. Wild and domestic, large and small animals are comprehended.
11, 12. Next all rational beings, from the highest in rank to little
princes--or, military leaders.
14. exalteth the horn--established power
(Ps 75:5, 6).
praise of--or literally, "for"
his saints--that is, occasions for them to praise Him. They are further described as "His people," and "near unto Him," sustaining by covenanted care a peculiarly intimate relation.